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Rustic Pathways Global Perspectives Series #1
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Rustic Pathways Global Perspectives Series #1

COVID-19 is the largest global crisis in recent memory. How are governments around the world helping real people on the ground?

We reached out to friends and colleagues throughout the Rustic Pathways community to hear how governments are intervening to support their citizens. This is the first article in the Rustic Pathways Global Perspectives Series
Australia India Peru
Bosnia and Herzegovina Jordan Philippines
Costa Rica Laos South Korea
Croatia Morocco Thailand
Dominican Republic Nepal Tunisia
Egypt New Zealand Turkey
Fiji Mongolia Vietnam

Australia

Like many countries, Australia implemented strict lockdown requirements, travel bans and social-distancing measures to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Health authorities have been conducting extensive testing, contact tracing, and quarantine to protect the community from this health crisis. These measures seem to have been effective as Australia has been relatively successful in flattening the curve and stopping the spread of the virus. As of 23 April, the country has reported 6,656 cases of the virus with 75 deaths, and the growth in new cases is slowing.

To support Australians through the economic crisis, federal and state governments have introduced a series of stimulus and financial support packages, including:

  • Cash flow boosts to businesses
  • Once-off payments of $750 to income support recipients
  • Increased income support for individuals seeking employment
  • A JobKeeper package to assist businesses with retaining their employees
  • Early access to retirement funds
  • 6-month moratorium on evictions of tenants who default on their rent
  • Price freezes on utilities such as electricity and gas

In general, Australians have been compliant with directions from authorities and have been supporting each other through the crisis.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

For over a month, Bosnia and Herzegovina has imposed severe restrictions in order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The government has closed schools and universities, shuttered restaurants and shops, suspended public transportation, banned public gatherings, required the wearing of masks in public, and has instituted a general national curfew from the hours of 8 pm-5 am. As of April 22, these severe measures have seemed to successfully lessen the number of cases (1,368) and death (53) compared to nearby countries such as Italy.

While these measures have relatively kept the population healthy, the economic impact on this small country, which relies heavily on tourism and remittance from workers abroad, has been pronounced. In order to help ease the financial impact of the crisis, the two governments that makeup Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska have taken different measures to help support their populations including:

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH)

  • Allocate a total amount of about 1 billion Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible Mark (KM) (3% of GDP) to support the economy which includes setting up a special fund to stabilize the economy and establishing a guarantee fund at the Development Bank which will be served to maintain and improve the liquidity of companies.
  • Transfer 30 million KM directly to hospitals
  • Subsidize contributions and taxes and pay minimum wages for all employees of the companies impacted by COVID-19.

The Republic of Srpska (RS)

  • Announced the health fund will cover health care costs for all patients
  • Postponed payments for business tax from the end of March to the end of June.
  • Cover income tax for about 40,000 workers in the sectors that are closed by the government’s decision from March to May.
  • Pay minimum salaries for all employees in these sectors in April.

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Costa Rica

In Costa Rica, the government has helped to support companies facing challenges and changes related to COVID-19 reflected in three situations.

  1. Companies having to let go of their staff
  2. Companies having to temporarily suspend contracts; this means that the company closes and sends their staff home and they don’t pay them anything. This can be legally done by companies for only 3 months.
  3. Companies that need to reduce working hours, which used to be illegal in Costa Rica. Companies now can reduce 25% to 50% of their workforce, depending on what the employer decides/needs.
    Because of the negative impact on the economy by these regulations and COVID-19, the government has decided to help financially with about $220 per month per family. This is for everyone who has lost their job or has suspended contracts. If you “only” have a reduction in your working hours, the government will help with $110 per family. This economic help plan is called “Plan Proteger” and only applies for the next three months. However, the government is willing to explore other alternatives including an extension of the plan if the crisis continues.

In addition to this package, banks are also helping with the mortgage for the next three months. They are relaxing their policies and allowing us to skip payments for three months without damaging our financial records and adding the balance to be paid at the end of your last payment.

Finally, the public education system is helping with boxes of food every two weeks for those students who had applied to eat with the school system.

A few pieces of positive news: Costa Rica is pioneering three plasma-based strategies to treat COVID-19, and Costa Rica continues a downward trend of active COVID-19 cases and now dips below 500 active cases as recovery rises. As a matter of fact, this week we have reported more recoveries than new/active cases. This comes with a huge warning from the authorities to not let our guard down and to continue the social distancing and safety precautions.

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Croatia

The Croatian economy is expected to be significantly affected by COVID-19, given its dependence on tourism and the impact to its largest trading partner, Italy. Containment started early and has been gradually tightened from border controls to the closure of schools, universities, open markets, and restrictions on intercity travel. As of April 22, these severe measures have seemed to successfully lessen the spread of the virus with a relatively low number of cases (1,950) and deaths (48) compared to neighboring countries such as Italy. In order to preserve jobs and alleviate the financial impact of COVID-19, Croatia quickly adopted 63 different economic measures and additional measures were announced at the beginning of April.

Key measures include:

  • Deferment of public obligations, free of interest for three months, which can be extended by an additional three months if necessary
  • Temporary suspension of payments of selected parafiscal charges
  • Interest-free loans to local governments
  • Subsidization of net minimum wages for three months to preserve jobs
  • Early refund of taxes for individuals
  • The government has also resorted to purchases of unsold stocks of finished goods in agriculture, food processing industry, medical equipment, and similar strategic goods.

On April 1, the government announced additional measures, including:

  • An increase in the subsidization of the net minimum wage
  • Tax obligations of companies to be reduced or written-off depending on their turnover and loss
  • VAT payments will not be due until payment is received from customers and the deadline for the 2019 financial reports will be extended to June 30

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Dominican Republic

For businesses in the tourism industry, the government is rolling out comprehensive plans for them to be able to pay their taxes once the state of emergency is lifted.

Dominican businesses are given a one-month extension to declare and pay their income taxes. Additionally, these businesses can divide their income tax payment into four equal payments, without any penalties.

Testing and treatment for COVID-19 have been added to every basic healthcare insurance plan, including the one provided by the state-subsidized SENASA. Those who do not work in the formal sector and may not have health insurance can still receive free testing if they have a prescription and are experiencing two or more symptoms.

As part of the response to the rise and spread of COVID-19 cases in the Dominican Republic, the government has created a Solidarity Fund for the Employee (FASE) and the Quedate en Casa (Stay at Home) programs.

  • FASE looks to help small and big business employees that have been furloughed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It provides them with a monthly deposit of up to $8,500 DOP ($160 USD).
  • Quedate en Casa is a program that helps informal workers who don’t qualify for FASE. Food rations are delivered on a weekly basis to families who are part of this program. A $5,000 DOP ($94 USD) deposit is also given to every family once a month. For families with elderly or vulnerable members, an extra $2,000 DOP ($38 USD) is given. The government expects 1,500,000 families to be benefited from this program.

Aside from FASE and Quedate en Casa, the government has encouraged local banks to take the following measures:

  • Loan payments are suspended for three months.
  • No interest rates are charged for credit card owners who miss their payments, for the duration of the state of emergency.

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Egypt

With the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt, the Egyptian government was quick to roll out comprehensive actions to fight the spread while ensuring the safety of citizens and essential workers.

The government established an EGP 100 million fund to help the health sector in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty-seven laboratories were established across the country along with 4 university laboratories. With supervision from the World Health Organization, the government also expanded its infection prevention and control (IPC) program to prevent transmission and ensure patients & health workers are protected.

As for the daily workers in Egypt, the country released a three-month stimulus package to support them during this crisis, since their work was negatively affected by the lockdown and the 7 PM curfew, now scaled down to 9 PM to 6 AM, that was established to prevent unnecessary gatherings around the country. It also rolled out an aid package to help the tourism sector that was severely affected by the pandemic.

In a country of over 100 million citizens, and another 3 million living abroad, the government managed to quickly aid those unable to return, while testing them at the airports before allowing them to enter the country. Soon afterward, it became mandated that anyone returning from abroad has to spend 14 days in quarantine in a hotel in Marsa Alam as an extra precaution before they can return home. Through the investigation procedures carried out by the Ministry of Health, they are able to track cases that appear between those returning from abroad or citizens within the country and those who come in contact with them quickly and accurately to control the spread of the virus.

The current number of cases is 4319, with 307 deaths and 1114 with negative test results and 1450 recovered and have left quarantine, as of 25 April 2020.

كيف تستجيب الحكومة المصرية لأزمة كوفيد 19؟

مع بداية جائحة COVID-19 في مصر، سارعت الحكومة المصرية إلى تنفيذ إجراءات شاملة لمكافحة الانتشار مع ضمان سلامة المواطنين والعاملين الأساسيين.

أنشأت الحكومة صندوقًا بقيمة 100 مليون جنيه لمساعدة القطاع الصحي في مكافحة جائحة COVID-19. تم إنشاء سبعة وعشرون مختبرًا في جميع أنحاء البلاد إلى جانب 4 مختبرات جامعية. وبإشراف من منظمة الصحة العالمية، قامت الحكومة أيضًا بتوسيع برنامج الوقاية من العدوى ومكافحتها لمنع انتقال العدوى وضمان حماية المرضى والعاملين الصحيين.

أما بالنسبة للعمالة اليومية في مصر، فقد أصدرت الدولة حزمة تحفيز مدتها ثلاثة أشهر لدعمهم خلال هذه الأزمة؛ حيث تأثر عملهم سلبًا بسبب الإغلاق وحظر التجول الساعة السابعة مساءً، الذي أصبح الآن من التاسعة مساءً حتى السادسة صباحًا فقط، لمنع التجمعات غير الضرورية في جميع أنحاء البلاد. كما قامت بتوزيع حزمة مساعدات لدعم قطاع السياحة الذي تأثر بشدة في ظل هذه الأزمة.

في بلد يقطنه أكثر من 100 مليون مواطن، و3 ملايين آخرين يعيشون في الخارج، تمكنت الحكومة من مساعدة العاجزين عن العودة بسرعة، وقامت باخضاعهم للتحاليل في المطارات قبل السماح لهم بدخول البلاد. بعد ذلك بوقت قصير، أصبح من الضروري أن يقضي أي شخص عائد من الخارج 14 يومًا في الحجر الصحي في فندق في مرسى علم كإجراء احترازي، قبل أن يتمكن من العودة إلى المنزل. ومن خلال اجراءات التقصي التي تقوم بها وزارة الصحة تتمكن من تتبع الحالات التي تظهر بين العائدين من الخارج أو المواطنين والمخالطين لهم بسرعة وبدقة للسيطرة على الانتشار بشكل دقيق.

العدد الحالي للحالات هو 4319، مع 307 حالة وفاة و1114 مع نتائج اختبار سلبية و1450 تعافوا وتركوا الحجر الصحي، حتى 25 أبريل 2020.

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Fiji

With only 18 cases of COVID-19 in Fiji, local lockdowns have been set up for some cities and neighborhoods but not for the entire country yet.

Last week, Fiji was also impacted by cyclone Harold and more than 500 houses were destroyed and 180’000 people affected. The government has been focusing on this other crisis and diverting funds to help the population affected. Australia and New Zealand also sent material and financial help for Fiji.

The tourism industry has been greatly impacted by this crisis and this is why the government allowed the population to withdraw up to 1000FJD (500USD) from their retirement funds to help during unemployment. Unfortunately, Fiji is lacking funds to do more to help its population.

Luckily, Fijians can rely on their local communities to survive. Villages have been relying on their ancestral tradition to work together and plant more vegetables to survive. Some villages spokesperson even declared that this situation was bringing life back into their villages with men and young people coming back to live with their families during the lockdown.

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India

With the information available to the world since early January, India has taken several proactive measures. This has ensured that India stayed ahead of the curve as the crisis evolved. The Government of India organized a meeting of the Health Crisis Management Group on Jan. 8 and constituted a Group of Ministers (GOM) to plan, monitor, and review the situation regularly and to ensure inter-ministerial coordination.
States and provinces were provided with guidelines for surveillance and contact tracing, laboratory sample collection, packaging and transport, a clinical management protocol, prevention and control in healthcare facilities, and discharge guideline for passengers under quarantine.
The focus areas of the strategy and major actions taken are as follows:

  • Surveillance at the country’s points of entry – The first travel advisory was issued on 17th Jan (before the first case was detected in India) along with the initiation of screening on flights arriving from China and Hong Kong at 3 Major Airports. Screening and graded travel restrictions were increased step by step from mid-January. As of April 6, 1.5 million passengers had been screened at the airports, forty-four thousand at sea ports and more than 2 million at land borders.
  • Community surveillance of all passengers through the Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) Network – Passengers are monitored in the community through the IDSP network on a daily basis. At present 621,000 passengers have been brought under surveillance, of which 33,249 were found to be symptomatic and referred; 5503 have been hospitalized so far. This has ensured that not a single positive case has been able to mix with the general population.
  • Laboratory testing – A network of labs across the country has been set up to facilitate early and timely sample testing. The WHO has identified the National Institute of Virology in Pune as the referral laboratory for the entire Southeast Asia Region. From one laboratory in January 2020 to 223 labs nationwide (157 public labs, 66 private) now, over 190,000 samples have been tested to date. India is also developing indigenous testing kits to meet higher demand for more extensive testing.
  • Ramping up production and procurement of medical supplies – The Indian private sector is being fully involved in the quest to make affordable local alternatives. For instance, there are now 32 Indian companies that have started work to produce personal protective equipment (PPE) kits. A six-fold increase in the supply of oxygen for medical purposes has also been ensured, since Feb 1. At present 727,494 beds, 171,317 isolation beds and 74,450 confirmed COVID-19 beds have been identified. Up to 40,000 extra isolation beds have been prepared by converting 2,500 railway carriages. The production of pharmaceutical supplies, like antipyretic tablets and Hydroxychloroquine, has been expanded to meet domestic needs and to export to other countries.
  • Public communication – One of the biggest ways to prevent community spread of the infection is through communication. Press ads about the basic do’s and don’ts of COVID-19 management were released, and more press ads dealing with other aspects are being developed and released as the situation progresses. Regular press conferences with the Health Minister have been carried out, and daily updates by designated officials have been issued and relayed across all media channels. Daily press releases about the number of cases, travel advisories, and other COVID-19-related decisions are being issued.
  • Ensuring the safety of Indians abroad – The government has taken every step to ensure the safety of its citizens. There have been evacuation operations from Wuhan, Iran, Japan (from a cruise), Italy and Malaysia. The evacuees were brought to quarantine facilities which were set up on a real-time basis on a war footing.

World’s Biggest Lockdown

  • By mid-March, there was a substantial global spread of the disease. On March 24, Prime Minister Modi announced a total lockdown for 21 days until April 15. This lockdown was truly unprecedented. For example, it has included a stoppage of over 13,000 railway passenger services a day and, for the first time in India’s history as a Republic, stoppage of all flight services and most public transport. And yet, continuity of essential services – the power supply, water, energy, food products, banking, and delivery of essential goods – was ensured.
  • After the lockdown, a lot of migrant laborers from NCT Delhi started migrating towards their home states. Many people started pouring into interstate bus terminals and the interstate highways. Many started walking on foot and many were stuck at different interstate borders. The government of India swung into action and the around 500,000 migrants were safely transported to their home states.
  • A detailed protocol was established to manage the migrants; guidelines were issued to ensure essential supplies; rations for stranded people were ensured. Nearly 28,000 relief camps and shelters have been set up, with relief being provided by state governments to 1.25 million people. Nationwide, 20,000 food camps are being run, with up to 7.5 million people being fed every day.
  • During the lockdown, the Government accelerated its efforts for effective management strategies and future planning. The Prime Minister’s Garib Kalyan (Welfare of the Poor) package sets out US$ 22 billion to alleviate the situation of the poor and vulnerable, including farmers and laborers. This includes insurance for 220,000 health care workers.
  • Food relief measures are being implemented to provide free grain and lentils for 3 months to 800 million people. LPG cylinders are being provided to 80 million poor households. Funds are being transferred through direct cash transfer schemes to poor senior citizens, differently-abled people, and to indigent widows.

International Partnership

  • The Indian prime minister invited all SAARC countries for a video conference to manage the COVID-19 situation on March 15 and set out a series of measures including a commitment to provide up to US$ 10 million toward health assistance. India has been able to deliver medical supplies and assistance to the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, and it is in the process of preparing packages of medicine and other needed commodities for Nepal and Afghanistan. Medical commodities have also been provided not only to Myanmar, the Seychelles, and Mauritius in our extended neighborhood but also to Italy, Iran, and China at the height of the crisis in those countries.
  • And in keeping with India’s standing as a major and responsible provider of pharmaceutical products to the world, commercial and aid supplies of key pharmaceutical products were made to the United States, Spain, Brazil, Israel, and Indonesia, as well as countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Jordan

Coronavirus is one of the largest viruses that took over the world in early 2020. And it invaded most of the world very quickly. And Jordan is considered one of these countries that were dominated by the virus. Jordan is considered one of the smallest Middle Eastern countries in the geographical area and resources, but it was considered one of the most efficient countries in the world in dealing with this natural disaster.

The first outbreak of the virus appeared in the middle of March. Where it appeared in the Irbid governorate at a wedding attended by more than 100 people and the sickness was the result of contact with one of the guests coming from abroad. When the sickness was revealed, the government started taking precautionary measures and prevented all sectors from working inside the institutions except vital sectors such as hospitals, and carried out by declaring a state of emergency and prohibiting roaming on Fridays and Saturdays, and it allowed citizens to go out at certain times by walking only. It also distributed bread to citizens and continued exchange of the minimum salary. The Central Bank of Jordan circulated to other banks to postpone loan payments to citizens and companies, some banks have also supported the small sectors by giving them interest-free loans to pay salaries, and during this difficult crisis, Jordanian society has solidarity with individuals and institutions, and they have made a generous donation to confront this virus in record time.

With these precautionary measures, Jordan has registered zero cases in one of the days. The civilian government is lifting the ban on governorates that are completely devoid of the virus and return to normal life. It is also opening other sectors gradually so that it can continue its work normally. Where the government intends to lift the ban completely by not opening the borders with other countries until the virus completely vanishes. God protected Jordan and raised the scourge.

كيف تستجيب الحكومة المصرية لأزمة كوفيد 19؟

يعتبر فايروس كورونا واحد من اكبر الفايروسات التي سيطرت على العالم في مطلع 2020, و انه اجتاح معظم دول العالم بسرعة كبيرة. و يعتبر الاردن  واحد من هذه البلدان التي سيطر عليها الفايروس حيث يعتبر الاردن واحدا من دول الشرق الاوسط الصغير في المساحة الجغرافية و المصادر , الا انه اعتبر واحدا من اكفئ الدول عالميا في التعامل مع هذه الكارثة الطبيعية.

بدأ اول انتشار للفايروس قي المنتصف من شهر اذار. حيث بدات في محافظة اربد في عرس حضره اكثر من 100 شخص و كانت الاصابات ناتجة عن مخالطة احد المدعوين القادم من الخارج, و عندما  تم الكشف عن الاصابات بدأت الحكومة باتخاذ التدابير الاحترازية و منع جميع القطاعات من العمل داخل المؤسسات عدا القطاعات الحيوية كالمستشفيات, و قامت باعلان حالة الطوارئ و منع التجوال ايام الجمعة و السبت و سمحت للمواطنين بالخروج في اوقات معينة سيرا عالاقدام فقط, كما و قامت بتوزيع الخبز على المواطنين و استمرارية صرف الحد الادنى من الرواتب كما قام البنك المركزي الاردني بالتعميم على باقي البنوك بتاجيل دفعات القروض للمواطنين و الشركات.كما قامت بعض البنوك بدعم القطاعات الصغيرة باعطائها قروض بدون فوائد لدفع الرواتب, و خلال هذه الازمة العصيبة تكافل المجتمع الاردني من افراد و مؤسسات و قاموا بالتبرع السخي لمواجهة هذا الفايروس بوقت قياسي.

مع هذه الاجراءات الاحترازية سجلت الاردن في احدى الايام صفر من الحالات, حيث تقوم الحكومة الادنية برفع الحظر عن المحافظات التي تخلو تماما من الفايروس و عودتها الى الحياة الطبيعية, و تقوم ايضا بفتح القطاعات الاخرى تدريجيا لامكانها من متابعة عملها بشكل طبيعي, حيث تنوي الحكومة عند رفع الحظر كاملا بعدم فتح الحدود مع الدول الاخرى حتى يتلاشى الفايروس تماما, حمى اللله الاردن و رفع البلاء.

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Laos

With a relatively low Coronavirus infection rate and no fatalities, Laos has not been substantially affected directly. However, indirectly, there have been dramatic consequences as a wave of migrant workers returned home from China, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. This is straining household incomes as there is an overall slump in worldwide demand for Laos commodity exports and tourism has ground to a halt. The overall effects are mitigated by the fact that most Laos households are agrarian and rely on subsistence agriculture for their food and products. The economic effects are most acute in the bigger cities and tourist centers, where the economy has ground to a halt.
The Laos government has enacted the following policies:

  • A full and indefinite lockdown was declared on March 30
  • Price controls for staple food items
  • Reduction of electricity bills.ຫຼຸດຄ່າໄຟຟ້າ
  • Reduction of water supply bills.ຫຼຸດຄ່ານຳ້
  • Individuals and businesses can temporarily stop paying off debt and interest payments to banks and financial institutions until further notice. ບຸກຄົນແລະພາກທຸລະກິດສາມາດພັກຊຳລະຕົ້ນທຶນແລະດອກເບ້ຍໃຫ້ກັບທະນາຄານຫຼືສະຖາບັນການເງິນ.
  • Temporary housing for homeless returning migrant workers
  • Weddings, social, and cultural events canceled indefinitely

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Mongolia

On March 27, Mongolian Prime Minister Khurelsukh announced a 5.1 trillion Mongolian tögrög (MNT) stimulus package to address economic challenges stemming from COVID-19. The package consisted of the following actions:

  • All entities and companies are exempt from paying social insurance contributions for six months from April 1 until October 1.
  • Personal income tax will be waived for six months from April 1 until October 1.
  • Entities with revenues of less than 1.5 billion MNT are entitled to exemption of corporate tax for six months from April 1 until October 1.
  • For 3 months, the government will pay 200,000 MNT monthly to each employee of private companies keeping their workers on their job despite the difficulties in their businesses and declining revenues.
  • Loans with 3-percent interest rate, totaling 300 billion MNT, will be granted by the government to national cashmere companies for purchasing cashmere from herders. This measure is expected to directly benefit 233,000 herding families, according to the PM.
  • For 3 months, the monthly ‘Child Money’ allowance of MNT 20,000 to children aged under 18 is raised to 30,000 MNT.
  • Necessary measures will be taken so that the retail price of fuel per liter would be cut by 300-400 MNT, starting April 15.

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Morocco

The government has moved to create a raft of financial support tools to help people and businesses better weather the economic impact These include:

  • Suspending the March 31 tax deadline
  • Ordered banks to allow for the postponement of loan payments for three months with a written request
  • Families will receive the monthly stimulus of $80 for a family of two, scaling up with the number of people
  • Created a fund to support investment in local businesses creating supplies intended to help the global fight against COVID-19 – Morocco produces 8M masks daily
  • Morocco co-sponsors international initiative to protect women during the lockdown

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Nepal

Nepal is yet to make an announcement on economic recovery and how it will approach multilateral and bilateral agencies for long-term support through investments, grants, and loans to handle this major crisis. Kathmandu has instead opted to take short-term approaches. Nepal has looked up to China for supplies, and the first batch of grants from Beijing has been approved and purchases made by Nepal were airlifted on March 29. The US also has made contributions. China will likely not mind using its full strength to help Nepal as it gives a big opportunity for it to increase its soft power in India’s backyard. For India, if it contains the virus well within its country, it will want to also extend its expertise to Nepal. Our proximity with India through land borders make the relationship unique at the same time brings about challenges in stemming movements and implementing proper screening procedures and policies.
It is all about changing mindsets to working together in getting over this global crisis. Nepali people are used to overcoming crises, they can also tell the world how they do it.

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New Zealand

A 12.1 billion New Zealand Dollar (NZD) stimulus package was prepared to cushion the blow of COVID-19. It includes covering wages for people who are required to self-isolate but cannot work from home, or those caring for relatives who are sick with the virus, even if they are not sick or do not test positive for COVID-19. This package is one of the largest in the world on a per capita basis totaling 4% of New Zealand’s GDP, bigger than Australia’s (1.2%), Britain’s (0.6%), Ireland’s (0.9%), or Singapore’s (1.3%).

Full-time workers will receive 585 NZD per week under the scheme – currently set to end on 30 June – with 350 NZD paid to part-time workers. The package also includes 500 million NZD for healthcare, including doubling resources for the public health units tasked with tracing contacts of people who become unwell, bolstering intensive care capacity at hospitals, and money to support primary care doctors.

New Zealand has been on lockdown for almost one month and will ease its measure starting on the 27th of April. The prime minister declared: “Our transmission rate, the number of cases each person with the virus passes it onto, is now 0.48, less than half a person each. Overseas the average is 2.5 people. We have amongst the lowest number of confirmed cases per 100,000 people in the world.”

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Peru

As one of the first countries in South America to close its borders and impose a mandatory quarantine, Peru is taking the threat of COVID-19 very seriously. Under quarantine measures that started on March 16, citizens are only allowed to leave their homes to go to the grocery store, the pharmacy, or to seek medical care. April 24th marks the 40th day of lockdown in the country.

While quarantine is the main line of defense against the epidemic, the Peruvian government has implemented other measures to support the economy and its citizens:

  • Repatriated Peruvians are being quarantined in hotels to avoid potential transmissions to family members
  • Limits of staple items each customer can purchase at the grocery store
  • Limit of people in grocery stores and everyone must wear a mask
  • Peru rolled out a stimulus package worth $26 billion to offset the economic impact of the epidemic
  • Stipends given to the most vulnerable families to offset the lack of income during the quarantine

As of now, quarantine is slated to be lifted slowly starting on May 11.

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Philippines

The Philippines is one of the countries near China, the epicenter of coronavirus. The first case was reported on January 30, 2020, from a female woman from China. Cases increased rapidly. It has now a total of 7,294 confirmed cases in different provinces and cities with a 6.77% death rate and 10.86% recovery rate as of 4 pm on April 25, of the current year based on the Department of Health (DOH) statistics.

The government imposed enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) to control the spread of the virus since it is known to be transferred through droplets. Some businesses like malls are closed. However, some food businesses, pharmacies, and groceries are still open to cater to the needs of the people. Some Filipinos working in the city decided to go home to their own provinces before the ECQ is implemented in Metro Manila. Some have the opportunity to work from homes like the call center agents and those working in Business Processing Office (BPO).

Though there is a scarcity of masks and other food, the government is doing its best to provide the daily needs of the people. Local Government Units (LGUs) are repacking rice and canned goods to distribute to their respective areas. Other businessmen, celebrities, and other public personalities also donated goods as assistance to people in need. Most people in the country, particularly Luzon,  do not have work and no income. They have no means to supply their needs but to depend on Government support.

The President announced that enhanced community quarantine be extended to flatten the curve. Although the Philippines is a developing country, people are still positive that they will contain the virus while waiting for the cure, can get through this situation, and hope that everything will be back to normal.

Paano nakakatulong ang gobyerno sa mga tao sa panahon ng krisis?

Ang Pilipinas ay isa sa mga bansa na malapit sa Tsina, kung saan nagsimula ang coronavirus. Ang unang kaso ay naitala noong ika-20 ng Enero, isang babae na galing sa Tsina. Mabilis ang pagtaas ng bilang ng mga positibo sa coronavirus. Sa araw na ito, ika-25 ng Abril sa kasaluyang taon, ay may kabuuang bilang na 7,294 mula sa iba’t ibang probinsya at lungsod na may 6.77 porsiyento ng mga namamatay at 10.86 porsiyento ng mga gumagaling. Ito ay base sa tala ng Kagawaran ng Kalusugan.

Ang gobyerno ay nagpatupad ng enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) para mapigilan ang paglaganap ng virus sa kadahilanang ito ay nakakahawa sa pamamagitan ng droplets. Ang ilang mga pribadong negosyo katulad ng mall ay pansamantalang isinara. Gayunpaman, ilang mga negosyo ay nananatiling bukas tulad ng mga industriya ng pagkain, parmasya at pamilihan upang matustusan ang pangangailang ng mga mamamayan. Ang ibang nagtatrabaho sa lungsod ay nagsipaguwian sa kani-kanilang probinsya bago maipatupad ang enghanced community quarantine. Ang mga call center agents at mga nagtatrabaho sa Business Processing Office (BPO) naman ay mapalad na naipagpapatuloy ang kanilang trabaho sa kanilang mga tahanan.

Bagamat may kakulangan sa masks at pagkain, ang gobyerno ay ginagawa ang lahat para maibigay ang pangangailangan ng mamamayan. Ang lokal na pamahalaan ay nagbabalot ng bigas at mga delata upang ipamahagi sa kanilang nasasakupan. Ang ibang negosyante, artista at mga pampublikong personalidad ay nagbahagi din ng donasyon para sa mga mamamayan. Madaming Pilipino, lalo na sa Luzon, ay walang trabaho at walang kita. Sila ang mga taong walang kakayanan upang matustusan ang kanilang pangagailangan at dumedepende lamang ngayon sa suporta ng gobyerno.

Ang presidente ay nag-anunsyo na palawigin ang enhanced community quarantine para mapababa ang bilang ng mga nagpopositibo sa virus. Bagamat ang Pilipinas ay papaunlad na bansa, ang mga mamamayan ay positibong pananaw na makokontrol ang paglaganap ng virus habang hinihintay ang gamot nito, na malalampasan nila ang ganitong sitwasyon at patuloy na puno ng pag-asa na ang lahat ay babalik sa normal.

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South Korea

Last week the Republic of Korea (South Korea) held its midterm election during the COVID-19 pandemic. Voter turnout was 66%, the highest for a midterm since 1992. The left of center Democratic Party increased its majority in the legislature, a seeming referendum on the ruling party’s response to the Coronavirus crisis.

At the national and local levels, government stimulus is intended to keep cash circulating through the economy. The government needs people to keep spending money.
The stimulus consists of a few key points:
  • The Korean national government is offering $1,000 per household for those who do not fall in the top 30% of wage earners and/or top 30% of household net worth.
  • 10% (up to $400) rebate on Korean-made high energy efficiency small electronics. The government has an approved list of products to support small and medium-sized manufacturers.
  • $400 per child grant distributed on a government benefits cash card. The sum can only be used at local businesses and must be spent in the 2020 calendar year.
  • Various cities and counties offer gift certificates that can only be used on farmers’ markets in their local cities and towns that have been hardest hit by the shelter in place ordinances.

전세계적 세기의 위기를 정부가 돕는 방법

이 글은 Rustic Pathways의 글로벌 관점 시리즈의 첫 글입니다.

지난 주 대한민국은 코로나19 사태 속에서 21대 국회의원 선거를 실시했다. 투표율은 66%로 1992년 이후 가장 높은 투표율을 기록했다. 결과로는 더불어민주당이 과반 수 이상의 의석 수를 갖게 되었는데 여당의 코로나19 사태에 대한 대응으로 인한 결과로 보여진다.

정부는 국가 경제의 현금 유동성을 유지하기 위해 전국적, 그리고 지역적으로 국민들에게 지원금을 지급하고 있다.

지원금에 대한 주요사항:

  • 대한민국 정부는 개인소득 혹은 가구소득 상위 30%를 제외한 가구당 100만원 지원
  • 국내 중소 제조사들을 돕기 위해 정부가 제시한 고효율 에너지 소형 가전제품에 대하여 10% 환불 서비스
  • 아동수당 40만원 현금카드로 보조금 지원. 단, 지역상권에서 2020년도 안에 사용해야 함
  • 시와 구별로 자가거주권고령으로 인해 가장 크게 영향을 받은 지역의 시장에서 사용할 수 있는 상품권 발행

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Thailand

Thailand has been in a general lockdown since the middle of March. All locations and businesses where crowds congregate have been shut down, including malls, theaters, concerts, restaurants, and non-food markets. This has had a dramatic negative effect on the entire economy. Most migrant workers from Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar have returned home, and many households are without income since mid-March.

Thailand’s economy is heavily dependent on trade and tourism, both of which have been virtually shutdown. Tourism accounts for a large segment of the country’s GDP and in recent years this sector had been increasingly reliant on Chinese tourists, which began to dwindle to a halt in November-December, followed shortly thereafter by declining tourist numbers from other regions. Major non-food export markets, including rubber, have been shut down, however, the government put a ban on specific food exports (like eggs) after prices of household staples began to increase.

Thailand has had a relatively low Coronavirus mortality rate and success in treating patients with antiviral medications, so government officials are mulling whether to continue the current lockdown which ends on April 30.

With limited financial resources, private individuals, temples, and NGOs have been organizing free food handouts to poor families. The government has tried to come up with ways to mitigate the negative economic effects of the shutdown on households, including:

  • 5,000THB ($150USD) per month for 3 months to those unemployed as a result of the lockdown
  • Returning the household electricity meter deposit fee of 4,000THB ($120 USD)
  • Allowing households to pay electricity bills based on their pre lockdown amounts
  • Temporary ban on exporting food staples and other scarce and essential commodities.
  • Free treatment at any hospital for any Coronavirus patients.

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Turkey

Although the first case of Turkey was officially announced at the beginning of March, the trajectory of COVID-19 confirmed cases in Turkey disturbed the people. Rapidly increase in the number of cases, Turkey climbed world ranking and ended 7th as April 25th. In this process, which started on March 10 and reached today, the government gradually took measures and provided assistance.

Firstly, temporary flight bans and flight restrictions were introduced and countries within this scope were expanded day by day. Flights for the citizens who want to return to Turkey were arranged and a mandatory quarantine process was initiated. At the beginning of the epidemic, education was interrupted, gathering places such as cafes, restaurants, museums, places of worship were closed, and it was decided to postpone or cancel collective events such as congresses and weddings. The people were asked to stay at home and the “Economic Stability Shield” package content was announced. The Ministry of National Defense has postponed new soldiers recruitment to the army and the discharge of existing soldiers as it would induce mobility. Mask obligation was introduced in places such as public transportation and markets, and it was decided to distribute free masks to citizens. The curfew was extended and generalized to all public temporarily between April 18 – 19 and April 23 – 27, by expanding the previous curfew for people over 65 and under 20. In addition to city entrance and exit restrictions in all provinces, it is temporarily prohibited for 30 provinces with metropolitan status and for Zonguldak province.

The Ministry of Health converted ALO 184 to “Coronary Advisory Hotline” in March and developed the “Pandemic Isolation Tracking Project” in April. As the cases progressed, hospitals serving as part of the fight against epidemics were increased and it was announced that new healthcare personnel would be employed. Mask production in the country has been accelerated, the first breathing apparatus of Turkey was produced. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) opened a new call for studies of vaccine development against COVID-19, Turkey Institutes of Health Administration (TUSEB) supported the establishment of COVID-19 diagnostic centers. The Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services provided cash assistance to those in need and launched an accommodation project for the homeless in the fight against coronavirus. Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir Metropolitan municipalities continue preparing thousands of food packages and cash aid and deliver them to those in need.

Turkey’s place in the fight against coronavirus is not limited to just the country. The Foreign Ministry of Turkey announced that supplies such as food, mask, biohazard clothing, disposable protective clothing, uniform, safety glasses, gloves, antiseptics, and COVID-19 test kits has delivered to more than 40 countries, including important allies such as England, Italy, Spain, and aid projects still continue.

Hükümet COVID-19 krizi sırasında insanlara nasıl yardım ediyor? – TÜRKİYE

Türkiye de ilk vakanın resmi olarak mart ayının başlarında açıklanmasına rağmen, rapor edilen vaka sayısının artış hızının yüksek olmasıyla mart ayının sonunda ortaya çıkan tablo insanları tedirgin etti. Dünya genelindeki vaka sayısındaki sıralamayı ne yazık ki hızla tırmanan Türkiye 25 Nisan itibariyle 7. sırada. 10 martta başlayıp günümüze ulaşan bu süreçte hükümet kademeli olarak önlemler almış ve yardımlar yapmıştır.

Öncelikli olarak geçici uçuş yasakları ve uçuş kısıtlamaları getirilmiş ve günden güne bu kapsamdaki ülkeler genişletilmiştir. Türkiye’ye dönmek isteyen vatandaşlar için seferler düzenlenmiş ve dönen vatandaşlar zorunlu olarak karantina uygulaması başlatılmıştır. Salgının başlarında eğitime ara verilmiş, kafeler, restoranlar, müzeler, ibadethaneler gibi toplanma mekanları kapatılmış, kongreler, düğünler gibi toplu etkinlikler ertelenmesi ya da iptal edilmesi kararlaştırılmıştır. Halktan evde kalması istenmiş ve 100 milyar liralık “Ekonomik İstikrar Kalkanı” paketi içeriği açıklanmıştır. Milli Savunma Bakanlığı orduya yeni asker kabulünü ve mevcut askerlerin terhisini büyük bir hareketlilik yaratacağı nedeniyle ertelenmiştir. Toplu taşıma ve market gibi yerlerde maske zorunluluğu getirilmiş, vatandaşlara ücretsiz maske dağıtılması kararlaştırılmıştır. 65 yaş üstü ve 20 yaş altı için sokağa çıkma yasağı genişletilerek 18 – 19 Nisan ve 23 – 27 nisan tarihlerinde geçici olarak genel yasağa dönüştürülmüştür. 81 ilde giriş – çıkış tedbirlerine ek olarak büyükşehir statüsündeki 30 il ve Zonguldak iline giriş-çıkış geçici olarak yasaklanmıştır.

Sağlık Bakanlığı ALO 184’ü “Koronavirüs Danışma Hattı”na çevirmiş, Nisan ayında “Pandemi İzolasyon takip Projesi” geliştirilmiştir . Vakalar ilerledikçe, salgınla mücadele kapsamında hizmet veren hastaneler artırılmış ve yeni sağlık personellerinin istihdam edilmeye başlanmıştır. Ülkede maske üretimi daha yaygın ve hızlı hale getirilmiş, ilk solunum cihazı üretilmiştir. Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK) yeni çağrı açarak COVID-19’a yönelik aşı çalışmalarını, Türkiye Sağlık Enstitüleri Başkanlığı (TÜSEB) ise COVID-19 tanı merkezlerinin kurulmasını desteklemiştir. Aile, Çalışma ve Sosyal Hizmetler Bakanlığı ihtiyaç sahiplerine yönelik nakit para yardımı yapmış ve koronavirüsle mücadele kapsamında evsizlere konaklama projesi başlatmıştır. İstanbul, Ankara ve İzmir Büyükşehir belediyeleri gıda paketleri ve nakit para yardımı hazırlayarak ihtiyaç sahiplerine ulaştırmaya devam etmektedir.

Türkiye koronavirüsle mücadele kapsamında sadece kendi içerisinde değil uluslararası platformda da yardım projelerine imza atmıştır. Dışişleri Bakanlığı İngiltere, İtalya, İspanya gibi önemli müttefiklerimizin de arasında bulunduğu 40’ı aşkın ülkeye gıda, maske, biyolojik tehlike tulumu, tek kullanımlık koruyucu kıyafet, önlük, koruyucu gözlük, eldiven, antiseptik ve COVID-19 test kiti gibi yardım malzemeleri göndermiş ve halen de yardımların devam ettiğini açıklamıştır.

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Tunisia

The COVID-19 pandemic has proved itself to be a global dilemma for all countries and governments to deal with it as a new challenge. One of the countries that implemented tremendous effort and a nationwide lockdown in Tunisia.

The first coronavirus case in Tunisia was found on the second of March, the number of cases had increased per day. Following the world health organization announcement of COVID-19 as a pandemic on the 12th of March, The Tunisian government has announced the nationwide lockdown on March 20.

Although the Tunisian Government has implemented crucial and important public health measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 numbers have increased reaching at least 643 cases on the fourth of April as reported by the Tunisian ministry of health.

Hundreds of people have been affected as the virus spreads further, in which the lives of refugees and local communities are not only affected medically but also economically. Many workers and families have reported the lack of food and resources since the lockdown had started. These populations worked mainly in public sectors.

Public services make up More than a quarter of the Tunisian economy, Which has been affected heavily by the lockdown. Sectors such as the tourism industry or trade and transportation have been stopped completely causing public anger.

Recently more than 822 infections and 37 deaths declared as of April 17, leaving the Tunisian government Actively coping with the containment of COVID-19, as well as the public outrage for the sudden stop of the economic wheel.

كيف تستجيب الحكومة المصرية لأزمة كوفيد 19؟

أثبتت جائحة كورونا أنها معضلة عالمية لجميع البلدان والحكومات للتعامل معا كتحد جديد.

تونس هي واحدة من الدول التي بذلت جهودًا جبارة و حجراً صحياً على الصعيد الوطني

مع اكتشاف أول حالة إصابة بفيروس كورونا التاجي في تونس في الثاني من مارس ، زاد عدد الحالات يوميا .و بعد إعلان منظمة الصحة العالمية عن فيروس كورونا  كوباء في 12 مارس ، أعلنت الحكومة التونسية إغلاق البلاد في 20 مارس.

على الرغم من أن الحكومة التونسية قد نفذت تدابير صحية عامة حاسمة وهامة لاحتواء انتشار الفيروس التاجي ، فقد زادت الحالات إلى 643 حالة على الأقل في الرابع من أبريل كما أفادت وزارة الصحة التونسية.

تأثر مئات الأشخاص مع انتشار الفيروس بشكل أكبر ، حيث لا تتأثر حياة اللاجئين والمجتمعات المحلية طبيا فحسب ، بل أيضا من الناحية الاقتصادية، حيث أفاد العديد من العمال والأسر بنقص الغذاء والموارد منذ بدء عملية الإغلاق، و يشكل عمل هؤلاء السكان بشكل رئيسي في القطاعات العامة.

تشكل الخدمات العامة أكثر من ربع الاقتصاد التونسي ، الذي تأثر بشدة من الإغلاق حيث تم إيقاف قطاعات مثل صناعة السياحة و التجارة والنقل مما تسبب في غضب الجمهور التونسي.

تم الإعلان مؤخرًا عن أكثر من 822 إصابة و 37 حالة وفاة حتى 17 أبريل ، تاركة الحكومة التونسية تتعامل بنشاط مع احتواء الفيروس التاجي، بالإضافة إلى الغضب العام من التوقف المفاجئ للعجلة الاقتصادية.

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Vietnam

When confirmed cases in Wuhan, China, jumped dramatically, the Vietnamese government implemented deliberate measures against the virus such as social distancing, city lockdowns, facilitated treatment plans for infected patients, developing virus test kits, and giving financial aid. They’ve shown marvelous results which could be summed up to these key points below:

  1. As of April 23, 2020, Vietnam’s Ministry of Health confirmed a total of 268 cases of COVID-19 with no new cases reported in the past week. In addition, 223 of the affected patients have recovered and been discharged from hospitals. No casualties have been recorded thus far.
  2. Vietnam ended the social isolation guidelines at the end of April 22 though restrictions will continue in some high-risk areas. While the social isolation guidelines in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City have also been lifted, some restrictions continue to remain for restaurants, bars, clubs, barbershops, taxis, and other public transport. Details on the opening of such businesses are expected within the next few days.
  3. Vietnam’s COVID-19 test kits have passed European standards and have been granted the CE marking and Certificate of Free Sale (CFS), allowing the test kits to be sold in the European Economic Area, including the UK.
  4. Vietnam donated US$100,000 worth of face masks and medical equipment to Japan as well as 200,000 face masks to the US to assist these countries in the fight against COVID-19.
  5. Vietnam plans to spend 27 trillion dong ($1.16 billion) to help businesses cope with the COVID-19 epidemic and help the economy stick to its 6.8% growth target this year. The plan includes tax breaks, delayed tax payments and a reduction in land lease fees. Another package of 62 trillion dong ($3.36 billion) will be used to aid citizens who are war veterans, individuals who recently lost their jobs, freelancers, households and people with financial difficulties.
  6. WHO lauds Vietnam responses to COVID-19 pandemic: The World Health Organization said in a statement April 18 that “the first days of the outbreak, when China had detected just 27 cases of the acute respiratory disease COVID-19 in Wuhan City, Vietnam’s Health Ministry had already issued prevention guidelines, including close monitoring of border areas and steps to prevent possible infections among people.”

Khi Vũ Hán, Trung Quốc xác nhận các trường hợp tăng vọt trong thời gian ngắn, chính phủ Việt Nam đã thực hiện các biện pháp có chủ ý chống lại virus như: giãn cách xã hội, hạn chế đi lại trong các thành phố lớn, phát triển kế hoạch điều trị cho bệnh nhân nhiễm bệnh, phát triển bộ dụng cụ xét nghiệm virus và hỗ trợ tài chính. Họ đã cho thấy kết quả tuyệt vời có thể được tổng hợp theo các điểm chính dưới đây:

  1. Tính đến ngày 23 tháng 4 năm 2020, Bộ Y tế Việt Nam đã xác nhận tổng cộng 268 trường hợp mắc COVID-19 mà không có trường hợp mới nào được báo cáo trong tuần qua. Ngoài ra, 223 bệnh nhân nhiễm bệnh đã hồi phục và xuất viện. Không có thương vong nào được ghi nhận cho đến nay.
  2. Việt Nam đã chấm dứt các hướng dẫn cách ly xã hội vào cuối ngày 22 tháng 4 mặc dù các hạn chế sẽ tiếp tục ở một số khu vực có rủi ro cao. Trong khi các hướng dẫn cách ly xã hội ở Hà Nội và Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh cũng đã được dỡ bỏ, một số hạn chế vẫn tiếp tục được duy trì cho các nhà hàng, quán bar, câu lạc bộ, tiệm hớt tóc, taxi và các phương tiện giao thông công cộng khác. Thông tin chi tiết về việc mở cửa các doanh nghiệp sẽ có trong thời gian tới.
  3. Bộ dụng cụ thử nghiệm Việt Nam COVID-19 đã đạt tiêu chuẩn châu Âu và đã được cấp chứng nhận CE và Giấy chứng nhận bán hàng miễn phí (CFS), cho phép bộ dụng cụ thử nghiệm được bán tại Khu vực kinh tế châu Âu, bao gồm cả Vương quốc Anh.
  4. Việt Nam tặng mặt nạ và thiết bị y tế trị giá 100.000 đô la Mỹ cho Nhật Bản cũng như 200.000 khẩu trang cho Hoa Kỳ để hỗ trợ các nước này trong cuộc chiến chống COVID-19.
  5. Việt Nam có kế hoạch chi 27 nghìn tỷ đồng (1,16 tỷ USD) để giúp các doanh nghiệp đối phó với dịch Covid-19 và giúp nền kinh tế bám sát mục tiêu tăng trưởng 6,8% trong năm nay. Kế hoạch bao gồm giảm thuế, chậm nộp thuế và giảm phí thuê đất. Một gói khác trị giá 62 nghìn tỷ đồng (3,36 tỷ USD) sẽ được sử dụng để hỗ trợ các công dân là cựu chiến binh, người gần đây mất việc, người làm tự do, hộ gia đình và người dân bị ảnh hưởng tài chính.
  6. WHO khen ngợi các phản ứng của Việt Nam đối với đại dịch Covid-19: Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới cho biết trong một tuyên bố hôm thứ Bảy rằng “những ngày đầu tiên của dịch, khi Trung Quốc phát hiện chỉ 27 trường hợp mắc bệnh hô hấp cấp tính Covid-19 tại thành phố Vũ Hán, Bộ Y tế Việt Nam đã ban hành các hướng dẫn phòng ngừa, bao gồm cả theo dõi chặt chẽ khu vực biên giới và các bước để ngăn ngừa nhiễm trùng có thể có ở người dân.
    Khi Trung Quốc xác nhận cái chết đầu tiên do SARS-CoV-2 vào ngày 11 tháng 1, Việt Nam đã nhanh chóng thắt chặt kiểm soát y tế tại tất cả các cửa khẩu và sân bay. Nhiệt độ cơ thể của du khách đến đã được kiểm tra và bất kỳ ai có triệu chứng ho, sốt, đau ngực hoặc khó thở đều được cách ly để kiểm tra và theo dõi chặt chẽ tại các cơ sở y tế. Một đường dây nóng cung cấp cho công chúng thông tin cần thiết về bệnh dịch, Việt Nam cũng thành lập 45 đội phản ứng nhanh tại các bệnh viện lớn trên cả nước để đối phó với các trường hợp nghi ngờ nhiễm SARS-CoV-2 mới. Việt Nam cũng đã làm rất tốt trong việc theo dõi và cách ly những người nghi nhiễm virut và điều trị bệnh nhân nhiễm bệnh kể từ khi quốc gia phát hiện các trường hợp nhiễm bệnh đầu tiên”, tuyên bố của WHO cho biết.

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Kayla Anzalone